TO : DOUGAL C. MACDONALD, ESQ.
FROM : CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
DATE : APR 20, 2008
RE : ENGAGEMENT OF JIM MCRORY
& FAITH RUSCA
FAITH PLANNED A SURPRISE BIRTHDAY FOR JIM MCRORY AND INVITED MY SON JOHAN VANDERMEER AND
HIS GIRLFRIEND JESSICA TO CROSSTOWN COFFEE SHOP WHERE THE PARTY WAS HELD
HE TOLD YOU AND MY MOTHER THAT JIM OUT OF THE PASSION OF THE MOMENT HE ASKED HER TO MARRY
HIM WITHOUT FINISHING THE FINAL PAYMENT OF THE DIVORCE SETTLEMENT
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
OSC FAMILY LAW
computer VIEWING of one world order viewers
DEC 2008 CHEMCIAL FIRE STARTED BY FAITH RUSCH - FORD'S DAUGTHER MICHAEL
Angst is a German, Danish, and Dutch word for fear or anxiety. (Anguish is its Latinate equivalent.) It is used in English to describe an intense feeling of strife. The term Angst distinguishes
itself from the word Furcht (German for "fear") in that Furcht usually refers to a material threat (arranged fear), while Angst
is usually a nondirectional emotion. Angst normally means a feeling or fear towards anything strange coming up.
In other languages having the meaning of the Latin word pavor, the derived words differ in meaning,
e.g. as in the French anxiété and peur. The word Angst has existed since the 8th century, coming from
the base-Indoeuropean *anghu-, "restraint" from which Old High German angust develops. It is pre-cognate with the Latin angustia, "tensity, tightness" and angor,
"choking, clogging"; compare to the Greek "άγχος" (ankhos): stress.
Existentialist philosophers use the term "angst" with a different connotation. The use of the term was first attributed
to Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855). In The Concept of Dread (also known as "The Concept of Anxiety", depending on the translation), Kierkegaard used the word Angest (in common
Danish, angst, meaning "dread" or "anxiety") to describe a profound and deep-seated spiritual condition of insecurity and despair in the free human being. Where the animal is a slave to its instincts but always conscious in its own actions, Kierkegaard believed
that the freedom given to people leaves the human in a constant fear of failing his/her responsibilities to God. Kierkegaard's concept of angst is considered to be an important stepping stone for 20th-century existentialism. While Kierkegaard's feeling of angst is fear of actual responsibility to God, in modern use, angst was broadened by the later existentialists to include general frustration associated
with the conflict between actual responsibilities to self, one's principles, and others (possibly including God). Martin Heidegger used the term in a slightly different way.
Angst in serious musical composition has been a reflection of the times. Musical composition embodying
angst as a primary theme have primarily come from European Jewish composers such as Gustav Mahler and Alban Berg, written during a period a great persecution of the Jewish people shortly before and during European
Nazi rule. A notable exception is the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich whose symphonies use the theme of angst in post-WWII compositions depicting Russian strife during the
war. However, it is the Jewish artists, Gustav Mahler and Franz Kafka in music and literature that have embraced the theme of angst so highly in their work that they have
become synonymous with the term to the point of popular joking and cartoons today.
Angst appears to be absent from important French music. Erik Satie’s Gymnopédie and Maurice Ravel’s Pavane pour une infante défunte, composed before WWII, reflect melancholy sentiment without angst in soft, quiet compositions. The effect
of angst is achieved by Shostakovich, Mahler and Berg in compositions of wide dynamic range, at times seemingly spinning out
of control (Mahler), and atonal music using the twelve-tone row method of composition (Berg and others) to create an angst ridden atmosphere of grotesque sound.
The theme of angst is vividly portrayed in Mahler's Symphony No. 6 (The Tragic) and in Alban Berg's
poignant Violin Concerto, dedicated to "To the memory of an angel", for the death of friend Gustav Mahler’s daughter.
In popular music
Angst, in contemporary connotative use, most often describes the intense frustration and other related
emotions of teenagers and the mood of the music and art with which they identify. Heavy metal, punk rock, grunge, nu metal, emo, and virtually any alternative rock dramatically combining elements of discord, melancholy and excitement may be said to express angst. Angst was probably first discussed in relation to popular
music in the mid- to late 1950s that was popular amongst the nuclear disarmament and antiwar protester subculture. Folk rock songs like Bob Dylan's 1963 Masters of War and A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall articulated the dread caused by the threat of nuclear war. A key text is Jeff Nuttall's book Bomb Culture (1968) which traced this pervasive theme in popular culture back to Hiroshima.
In the 1980s "teen angst" was expressed in music to a certain extent in the rise of punk, post punk, and alternative music with which it is currently more associated. It was used in reference to the grunge movement and the band
Nirvana. Nirvana themselves seem to have been aware of this, as evidenced by the first line of "Serve the Servants" in which Kurt Cobain describes the success of writing songs dealing with the subject (Teenage angst has paid off well |
Now I'm bored and old...). In addition, rock band Placebo released a single from their first album entitled Teenage Angst. Also, From First To Last's first full-length album quotes a line of dialogue from black comedy film Heathers, entitled
Dear Diary, My Teen Angst Has A Body Count, and the same line appears in their single "Ride The Wings Of Pestilence". Another band that has
done this is The Wombats in which their line (In their single "Kill the Director") is "And with the angst of a teenage band, here's another song about a gender I'll never understand."
Another song to mention the term is Silverchair's song "Miss You Love", which says: "I love the way you love/But I hate the way I'm supposed to love you back/It's just
a fad/Part of the, teen, teenage angst brigade". another band that mentions angst is Rise Against with their song Six Ways til Sunday "You're the new revolution/The angst-filled adolescent/You fit
the stereotype well"
Angst in My Pants is the eleventh album by Sparks.
In fiction and film
The term "angst" is now widely used as a theme by many great modern writers. Often, the expression
is used as a common adolescent experience of malaise, as in J.D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye. It has become one of the central themes in modern fiction.
Franz Kafka is the writer whose work is most associated with the theme of angst. His novels The Trial and The Castle, and the short story The Metamorphosis all share this theme.
SEE LINK FOR ANGST http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angst
Contempt - General Concepts
A party subject to a valid court order who, with knowledge of the order and the ability
to comply, fails to comply with the terms of the order is subject to a contempt adjudication and statutory contempt penalties
(Ca Civ Pro §§ 1218 & 1219). As an enforcement remedy, exercise of the contempt power enables the court to compel compliance
with its valid orders.
In a "civil contempt," the punishment is "remedial, and for the benefit of the complainant."
In a "criminal contempt," the sentence is "punitive, to vindicate the authority of the court."
The face of the Judicial Council Affidavit for Contempt form expressly states "A contempt
proceeding is criminal in nature" and advises the citee that "the possible penalties include jail sentence . . ." Consequently,
at least one court concludes any contempt proceeding brought on the standard Judicial Council contempt form is per se a criminal
(not a civil or "remedial") contempt matter.
Family law orders and judgments are enforceable by contempt unless punishment by contempt
would violate the constitutional guaranty against imprisonment for nonpayment of "debt" (U.S. Const., Amend. XIII; Ca Const.
Art. I, § 10). However, an order or judgment is not a "debt" within the meaning of the constitutional guaranty against imprisonment
for "debt" simply because it requires the payment of money. As developed below, most (but not all) family law orders and judgments
are deemed based on a law-imposed obligation (not "money judgments in civil actions for debts") and thus are enforceable by
the court's contempt power
Orders Enforceable By Contempt
Support Orders: Child, spousal and family support orders are based on an obligation arising out of marriage
and parentage and are imposed by law. They are not money judgments in civil actions for the payment of a "debt" within the
meaning of the constitutional guaranty against imprisonment for debt and thus clearly are enforceable by contempt.
Child Custody & Visitation Orders: Child custody and visitation orders do not impose a "debt" obligation.
Thus, e.g., the court may invoke its contempt power against a parent who unjustifiably interferes with the other parent's
court-ordered visitation rights or violates an injunction restraining relocation with the children.
Attorney Fees/Costs Orders: Need-based attorney fees and costs are awardable by statute in marital proceedings
(Ca Fam §§ 2030/2032). The award is based on a law-imposed obligation (not arising out of a money judgment for a "debt") and
thus is enforceable by contempt.
Property Division Orders: A spouse who refuses to relinquish a specific item of property or to pay over
a portion of a specific fund of money pursuant to a community property division order is subject to enforcement by contempt.
The obligation is "law-imposed" (not a "debt") because based on the parties' statutory right to an equal division of community
property upon termination of marital status (Ca Fam § 2550 et seq.).
Restraining Orders & Family Court Protective Orders: The court may properly invoke its contempt power
to compel compliance with valid protective orders and restraining orders issued in a domestic relations proceeding. [Ca Penal
§ 273.6 (misdemeanor penalty for intentional and knowing violation of Ca Fam § 6218 protective orders)]
Failure To Comply With "Declaration Of Disclosure" Requirements: A spouse who has complied with the statutory
"declaration of disclosure" requirements in marriage dissolution proceedings (Ca Fam § 2100 et seq.) has various statutory
remedies against the other spouse who has failed to comply. One such remedy is a motion to compel a further response (Ca Fam
§ 2107(b)(1)). If the noncomplying spouse fails to file a sufficient response, the complying spouse may seek monetary sanctions
"in addition to any other remedy provided by law" (Ca Fam § 2107(c))--including an OSC re Contempt]
Orders Enforceable By Contempt
Marital Settlement Agreement Obligations Not Merged Into Judgment: Obligations arising out of a marital
settlement agreement are not enforceable as court orders unless "merged" or incorporated in the judgment. Consequently, breach
of a marital settlement agreement (or any other contract) is not remediable by contempt where the defaulted obligation was
never made a part of the judgment.
Marital Debt Liability Orders: An order pursuant to a division of the community estate requiring a spouse
to make specified payments in satisfaction of a community liability is a "debt" not enforceable by contempt . . . unless the
obligation is an integral part of a support order.
Statute Of Limitations
The contempt remedy for noncompliance with a court order made under the Family Code is subject to a statute of limitations
(Ca Civ Pro § 1218.5)
Support Orders: For an alleged failure to pay child, family or spousal support, the contempt action must
be commenced no later than three years from the date the payment was due. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218.5(b)
A contempt cause of action for nonpayment of support may be broken down into separate "counts" for each month payment was
not made in full. Thus, the fact the obligor stopped (or fell short in) payments over three years ago is not fatal to a contempt
remedy: Each month within the three-year period for which payments were in default is separately punishable as separate counts
of contempt. [See Ca Civ Pro § 1218.5(a)]
Other Family Court Orders: A contempt action to enforce any other order made under the Family Code must
be brought within two years "from the time that the alleged contempt occurred." [Ca Civ Pro § 1218.5(b)]
Due Process Protections
If the contempt proceedings are criminal in nature, the U.S. Constitution guarantees the citee the full panoply of due
process safeguards afforded criminal defendants.
Notice Of The Charge: The citee must be formally notified of the charge and of the time and place for
the court hearing on the charge. Service of the notice must be effected in a manner authorized for service of summons; an
OSC re Contempt is not properly served by the more liberal Ca Civ Pro § 1010 et seq. methods for service of motions or OSCs
generally.[Ca Civ Pro § 1016; Ca Fam § 215]
Opportunity To Be Heard: Unlike ordinary motion and OSC proceedings, contempt cannot be decided on the
moving and responding papers alone. The citee is entitled to a formal hearing as a matter of right and must be allowed to
testify, to call and cross-examine witnesses, and to introduce evidence in defense of the charge. [Ca Civ Pro § 1217]
Right To Counsel: Contempt citees clearly have a due process right to be represented by an attorney they
have retained for that purpose. Additionally, where the potential penalty includes a jail sentence, an indigent citee has
the due process right to court-appointed counsel at county expense.
Application Of The 5th Amendment: The citee must be afforded the testimonial privileges of a criminally
accused: He or she is entitled to exercise the privilege not to be called as a witness, and can decline to answer specific
questions, claiming the privilege against self-incrimination. These privileges are not waived by filing an answer to the charging
Criminal Burden Of Proof: As a general rule, the citee also has the same rights as a criminally accused
to proof of a prima facie contempt case by competent evidence beyond a reasonable doubt. The contempt must be discharged if
the charging party fails to carry this burden on each element of the prima facie case.
Right To Jury Trial: The Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees the right to a jury trial
for all "serious" criminal contempts--i.e., when the contempt is punishable by more than six months' imprisonment.
The right to a jury trial under the California constitution is broader: It extends to all criminal prosecutions above an
"infraction." Thus, there is a right to jury trial in criminal contempt proceedings that carry a maximum penalty comparable
to a felony or misdemeanor (six months' imprisonment plus $1,000 fine) regardless of what the Legislature has labeled the
However, there is no right to jury trial where the court invokes its general summary contempt power under Ca Civ Pro §
1209 and imposes only a maximum five-day sentence and/or $1,000 fine (Ca Civ Pro § 1218(a)). That punishment is not akin to
a misdemeanor penalty and thus does not trigger the state constitutional jury trial provision.
If the court proceeds to trial on contempt charges without a jury, and the citee has not expressly waived the right to
a jury, the maximum sentence that may be imposed is 180 days (six months). A longer sentence in violation of the jury trial
right will not invalidate the contempt conviction or require retrial by jury; but the court must reduce the sentence to six
months or less.
Double Jeopardy: Constitutional "double jeopardy" protection guarantees that a person will not be subject
to duplicate punishment or duplicate prosecution for the same criminal offense (U.S. Const., 5th Amend; see also Ca Penal
§ 1387). Double jeopardy protection fully attaches in a nonsummary criminal contempt prosecution to the same extent as it
does in other prosecutions for a criminal offense.
Initiating Contempt Proceedings
Contempt proceedings to enforce a civil judgment or order are commenced by presenting a prescribed "charging affidavit"
to the court. [Ca Civ Pro § 1211(a)] Based on the affidavit (which recites the facts constituting the prima facie contempt),
the court must then issue and sign an order to show cause directing the alleged contemnor to appear and be heard on the charge
at a specified date and time. [Ca Civ Pro § 1212]
In family law cases, the contempt proceedings must be initiated by filing and serving an FL-410 Order to Show Cause and
Affidavit for Contempt, along with an applicable Affidavit of Facts Constituting Contempt (FL-411 or FL-412). These forms
have been adopted for mandatory use.
The facts constituting the contempt must be alleged by an "affidavit of facts," setting forth the type of order violated,
the date the order was issued, how the order was violated, and when the violation occurred. Jurisdiction to adjudicate a contempt
ordinarily exists only if the charging affidavit alleges evidentiary facts showing a prima facie case of contempt (as developed
below). [Ca Civ Pro § 1211(a)] However, a deficient charging affidavit may be amended at any stage of the proceeding (Ca Civ
Pro § 1211.5(b)). And, if there is no objection to the sufficiency of the charging affidavit, jurisdiction to adjudicate contempt
may be established by facts proved at the contempt hearing (in which case, the court "shall cause the affidavit or statement
to be amended to conform to proof"). [Ca Civ Pro § 1211.5(a)]
Elements Of A Cause Of Action For Contempt:
The facts generally necessary to establish a prima facie contempt of a family law order are: (i) rendition of a valid order;
(ii) the citee's knowledge of the order; and (iii) the citee's willful disobedience of the order.
Valid Order: A contempt adjudication cannot stand if the underlying order is invalid. The charging affidavit
must identify the underlying order by date of entry and type. For purposes of sustaining a prima facie case, the court can
presume validity unless the order is void on its face; the citee thus normally bears the burden of showing invalidity, either
as an affirmative defense in the answer or by motion to discharge the contempt citation.
Knowledge Of The Order: The charging affidavit must set forth facts showing the citee's notice or knowledge
of the underlying order (a jurisdictional prerequisite to a valid contempt adjudication).
Knowledge can be shown by personal service of a copy of the order, the citee's presence in court when the order was made,
the citee's signature on a stipulation upon which the order was based, or proof that the citee previously sought relief related
to the order (e.g., modification).
Order Willfully Disobeyed: To complete a prima facie case of contempt, the charging party must allege
facts showing the citee's willful disobedience of the underlying order.
Support Cases: In making a family law support or attorney fees/costs order, the family court necessarily must determine
the obligor's ability to pay (Ca Fam §§ 4320(c) (spousal support), 4053(c),(d) (child support), 270, 271(a), 2030(a) (attorney
fees and costs)). Since the court has already determined the obligor/citee's ability to pay the underlying order, present
ability to pay is not an element of a prima facie contempt case predicated on nonpayment. Rather, inability to pay is an affirmative
defense that must be proved by the citee.
Custody/Visitation Cases: A custodial parent can be held in contempt of a visitation order only when he or she has
sufficient control over the child so as to have the ability to make the child available for visitation. This is a fact question
in each case. A parent probably has sufficient control over minor children of "tender years" to compel them to visit with
the other parent; failure to make such children available for visitation probably would be punishable as contempt. But the
result may be otherwise when the children get older and it becomes more difficult to exert parental "control." If a teenage
child refuses to visit with the noncustodial parent, through no fault of the custodial parent, the custodial parent lacks
the ability to comply with the order and cannot be held in contempt; in these cases, the noncustodial parent is probably left
without a remedy.
Filing And Service
Filing With Court Clerk: The completed OSC and affidavit form(s) are taken to the court clerk, who will
obtain the judge's signature on the OSC and then file the papers.
Personal Service Required: Conformed copies of the charging affidavit and OSC must be served on the citee
at least 21 calendar days before the hearing (Ca Civ Pro § 1005(b)). The citee must be served personally, in a manner
authorized for service of summons. Service on the citee's attorney will not suffice in a contempt proceeding. [Ca Civ Pro
§§ 1015, 1016; see also Ca Fam § 215 (postjudgment proceedings)]
Exception Were Citee Conceals Him/Herself: "Substitute service" on the citee's attorney of record might suffice
where the citee has concealed himself or herself to avoid service of the contempt papers. [Shibley v. Super.Ct. (1927) 202
Cal. 738, 742-743, 262 P 332, 334; see also Cedars-Sinai Imaging Med. Group v. Super.Ct. (Moore), supra, 83 Cal.App.4th at
1286, 100 Cal.Rptr.2d at 324--personal service on citee required "(u)nless the citee has concealed himself from the court"]
However, a charging party seeking to invoke this exception to personal service must provide the court with evidentiary facts
showing reasonable efforts to ascertain the citee's whereabouts and the efforts taken to attempt service on the citee.
Responding To The Charge
The citee may answer the charge, admitting or denying it, or may move for a discharge without answering.
In response to the contempt charge, and before the hearing, the citee can file an opposing affidavit (declaration under
penalty of perjury; Ca Civ Pro § 2015.5), questioning the adequacy of the moving party's charging affidavit or raising a sufficient
"excuse or justification" in defense. The opposing affidavit together with the charging affidavit frame the issues to be tried
in the proceeding.
Common Defenses: Contempt charges are commonly defended on the ground that any failure to comply with
the underlying order was not "wilful" because the citee lacked the ability to comply. The citee does not meet this burden,
however, with conclusory declarations. He or she must set forth evidentiary facts showing why complete performance was impossible.
Moreover, default under the order will not be excused if the responding allegations disclose that the inability to comply
was self-imposed for the purpose of avoiding compliance.
Note also that disobedience of a lawful court order is not excused by the fact the citee was acting on advice of counsel.
Moreover, attorneys who encourage such defiance can be held in contempt themselves for their own recalcitrant conduct.
Motion For Discharge: In lieu of an answer, the citee can move for a discharge of the contempt citation
on the following grounds:
- The charging affidavit does not make out a prima facie case of contempt.
- The order expired before the alleged violation. (But if the order was in effect at the time of the violation, discharge
will not be granted simply because it has expired or been superseded at the time of the contempt proceedings)
- The same charge was previously made on the same facts and the citee was discharged on the merits.
Appearance At The Hearing: Normally, either the citee or his or her attorney must appear at the hearing;
and, if neither appears, a bench warrant can issue to secure their presence. But it is error for the court to proceed in the
absence of the alleged contemnor or his or her attorney, unless it finds the OSC and Affidavit for Contempt forms were validly
served and the failure to appear was voluntary. [Ca Civ Pro § 1217]
Admissable Evidence: The charging and opposing affidavits are hearsay and thus inadmissible over objection.
[Ca Evid §§ 1200(a),(b)]
The penalties upon a contempt adjudication are prescribed by Ca Civ Pro §§ 1218 and 1219.
Mandatory Community Service Or Imprisonment: Upon a contempt adjudication for failure to comply with a
court order made under the Family Code, the court "shall order" community service and/or imprisonment as prescribed by Ca
Civ Pro § 1218(c).
First Contempt: Upon a first finding of contempt, the contemnor must be ordered to perform community service of
up to 120 hours, or to be imprisoned up to 120 hours (five days), for each count of contempt. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218(c)(1)]
Second Contempt: Upon a second finding of contempt, the contemnor must be ordered to perform up to 120 hours of
community service, in addition to imprisonment of up to 120 hours (five days), for each count of contempt. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218(c)(2)]
Third Contempt: Upon the third or any subsequent finding of contempt, the contemnor must be imprisoned for up to
240 hours (10 days) and be ordered to perform up to 240 hours of community service, for each count of contempt. [Ca Civ Pro
The contemnor must also be ordered to pay an "administrative fee," not exceeding the "actual cost" of the contemnor's administration
and supervision, while assigned to a community service program. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218(c)(3)(B)]
Calculating "Counts" Of Contempt In Support Nonpayment Cases: With regard to child, family or spousal support contempts,
each month in which there was a default may be alleged as a separate count of contempt and punishment imposed for each count
proved. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218.5(a)]
Read together with § 1218(c), above, this provision means that each count alleged in one charging affidavit may result
in one "finding of contempt"; but that the specified community service and imprisonment penalties may be aggregated for each
of the counts proved.
Example: One charging affidavit alleges five months' default in support payments, each as a separate count. If the
citee has not yet been adjudicated in contempt of a Family Code order, proof of each count in a single proceeding will amount
to a "first finding of contempt" under § 1218(c)(1); but the citee may be ordered to perform up to 600 hours of community
service or be imprisoned for up to 600 hours (25 days).
Attorney Fees And Costs: In addition to the fine, community service and imprisonment penalties discussed
above, a party (or party's agent) found in contempt for violating a court order "may" be ordered to pay the charging party's
reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred in connection with the contempt proceeding. [Ca Civ Pro § 1218(a)]
Fees & Costs:
|$250 per hour with a minimum fee varying with the size and complexity of the case.|
|Initial filing fee approximately $40. Other fees which may or not be necessary in your particular
case are: motion fees, fees for service of process, deposition fees.|
SEE LINK FOR BACKUP INFO http://www.kinseylaw.com/clientserv2/famlawservices/enforce/contempt/contempt.html
JIM AND FAITH
JUN 20, 2009
Significance of the summer solstice:
In pre-historic times, summer was a joyous time of the year for those Aboriginal people who
lived in the northern latitudes. The snow had disappeared; the ground had thawed out; warm temperatures had returned; flowers
were blooming; leaves had returned to the deciduous trees. Some herbs could be harvested, for medicinal and other uses. Food
was easier to find. The crops had already been planted and would be harvested in the months to come. Although many months
of warm/hot weather remained before the fall, they noticed that the days were beginning to shorten, so that the return of
the cold season was inevitable.
The first (or only) full moon in June is called the Honey Moon. Tradition holds that this is
the best time to harvest honey from the hives.
This time of year, between the planting and harvesting of the crops, was the traditional month
for weddings. This is because many ancient peoples believed that the "grand [sexual] union"
of the Goddess and God occurred in early May at Beltaine. Since it was unlucky to compete with the deities,
many couples delayed their weddings until June. June remains a favorite month for marriage today. In some traditions, "newly
wed couples were fed dishes and beverages that featured honey for the first month of their married life to encourage love
and fertility. The surviving vestige of this tradition lives on in the name given to the holiday immediately after the ceremony:
The Honeymoon." 14
SEE LINK FOR MORE INFO http://www.religioustolerance.org/summer_solstice.htm
The celebration of Midsummer's Eve was from ancient times linked to the summer solstice. People
believed that mid-summer plants, especially Marigold had miraculous healing powers and they therefore picked them on this night. Bonfires were lit
to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam freely when the sun was turning southwards again. In later years,
witches were also thought to be on their way to meetings with other evil powerful beings, though this
is not the case today.
In Sweden, Mid-summer celebration originates from the time before Christianity; it was celebrated as a
sacrifice time in the sign of the fertility.
The solstice itself has remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since Neolithic
times. The concentration of the observance is not on the day as we reckon it, commencing at midnight or at dawn, but
the pre-Christian beginning of the day, which falls on the previous eve. In Sweden, Finland and Estonia, Midsummer's Eve is
considered the greatest festival of the year, comparable only with Walpurgis Night, Christmas Eve, and New Year's Eve.
In the 7th century, Saint Eligius (died 659/60) warned the recently converted inhabitants of Flanders against these pagan solstice
celebrations. According to the Vita by his companion Ouen, he would say:
- "No Christian on the feast of Saint John or the solemnity of any other saint performs solestitia
[summer solstice rites] or dancing or leaping or diabolical chants."
Indeed, as Saint Eligius demonstrates, as Christianity was introduced to previously pagan areas,
midsummer celebrations came to be often translated to new Christian holidays, often resulting in celebrations that mixed purely
Christian traditions with traditions derived from pagan Midsummer festivities.
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